Modafinil - Top Smart Drug with Nootropic Benefits | SZOB
Modafinil - Top Smart Drug with Nootropic Benefits
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|1.What are Smart Drugs?||2.What is Modafinil?|
|3.How Modafinil Works?||4.Modafinil Uses and Benefits|
|5.Modafinil Side Effects and Dosages||6.Adrafinil vs. Modafinil vs. Armodafinil|
|7.Where to buy Genuine Modafinil raw powder online?|
1.What are Smart Drugs?
Nootropics, or smart drugs, are being used around the world by students, entrepreneurs, small business owners, athletes, poker players and housewives. They are used to boost learning ability, improve memory function, enhance focus and concentration, and even to improve verbal and written communication skills.
2.What is Modafinil?
Modafinil is an wakefulness-promoting analeptic drug distributed by Cephalon Inc. and approved as a drug by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States. While originally tested as a drug to treat certain sleep disorders, it is sometimes classified as a “smart drug” that is known to improve the performance of a subject who is impaired by fatigue and a lack of sleep.
You will also see it sold under the names Provigil, Sun Pharma Modalert, Alertec, Modapro, and Modiodal.
Modafinil was originally discovered in 1976 by a French medical professor Michel Jouvet in combination with the pharmaceutical company Cephalon. After it was seen to cause hyperactivity in animal studies it went on to be used for the first time in humans as an experimental treatment for narcolepsy in 1986.
Since then, the uses of Modafinil have expanded onto other sleep-related conditions, such as shift-work sleep disorder and chronic daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.
Modafinil is also famously used by the British and American military for keeping soldiers awake and functioning at high levels for up to 40 hours at a time. Studies have also determined Modafinil to be effective at reducing or eliminating the damaging effects of short-term sleep deprivation on the brain.
For this reason, it is commonly used as a nootropic to enhance cognitive performance especially in individuals who otherwise do not get enough sleep.
The exact mechanisms of action of Modafinil in the body are unknown. Research has shown that this medication has effects on various neurotransmitters in the brain and central nervous system including Histamine, Dopamine, Epinephrine (Adrenaline), Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline), Serotonin, and Orexin (Hypocretin).
Taking Modafinil has been seen to raise histamine levels and and locomotor activity in the central nervous system. Modafinil’s effects are shown to wear off once the natural neuronal histamine concentration has been depleted by a powerful inhibitor.
This runs counter to a similar drug called methylphenidate, which does not react in the same manner to fluoromethylhistidine, a histidine decarboxylase inhibitor.
Modafinil, the drug’s main active component of the same name, has not yet been fully researched to the extent that could reveal all the principles behind the way it operates. Several studies have discovered that it works by altering the CNS levels of histamine in the human body.
Controlled studies on mice revealed that the drug makes its way into the orexinergic system. Orexin is a peptide that acts as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the regulation of sleep/arousal states and the maintenance of vigilance. Test subjects that lacked the appropriate neuron failed to react as expected, pointing out the utmost importance of orexin in these processes.
In research Modafinil has been seen to affect Dopamine and its signalling pathways. In a study that looked at many different pathways and their neurotransmitters, Modafinil was seen to affect the Dopamine transporter, acting as a Dopamine reuptake inhibitor. An additional study using PET scans in human patients saw that by occupying the Dopamine transporter sites, Modafinil significantly increased levels of Dopamine in the brain.
4.Modafinil Uses and Benefits
Modafinil has been shown to help people stay awake and active, as well as make their mind much clearer if their memory has been previously worsened by the onset of sleep deprivation.
Studies have successfully shown a correlation between the use of this drug and retaining cognitive function in a healthy state against factors like a lack of sleep. However, not all of them could connect Modafinil to an improvement in psychomotor function in human test subjects.
Narcolepsy, Shift-Work Sleep disorder, and Sleep Apnea
Narcolepsy is a neurological condition that affects control of wakefulness and sleep. The condition causes excessive daytime sleepiness, and can even cause people to randomly faint and fall asleep throughout the day. The exact cause of narcolepsy is unknown, although there are several possibilities, and a strong link with certain genetic factors. Part of the mechanism is due to a loss of orexin releasing neurons in the brain.
In multiple double-blind placebo-controlled research studies, Modafinil has been seen to be an effective treatment for reducing daytime sleepiness in people with narcolepsy. Scores on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test and the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test are greatly improved using Modafinil over placebo. Nighttime sleep monitored during trials using polysomnography has been found to not be negatively affected using Modafinil compared to placebo.
Upon discontinuation of treatment, symptoms of narcolepsy were seen to return in patients to their baseline levels when not receiving treatment. There have not been reports of people developing withdrawal symptoms seen with other stimulants like amphetamines, and development of dependence does not seem to be an issue either. The most commonly reported adverse effect in studies of Modafinil for narcolepsy has been headaches, and the levels were not significantly greater than what was reported with placebo.
Researchers have therefore concluded that Modafinil is a generally well-tolerated treatment option for managing narcolepsy, and it most commonly prescribed for this original treatment purpose. Usage for other sleep disorders has grown as well, especially shift-work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.
Shift-work sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm disorder that occurs when people have jobs that they work during normal nighttime sleep periods. This can be people who consistently work the night shift of various jobs or those that have a rotating schedule that causes them to intermittently work night shifts. This is also seen in some people who work very long shifts, such as doctors.
Like narcolepsy, people with shift-work sleep disorder experience excessive daytime sleepiness. Additionally, they may experience insomnia when trying to sleep outside of normal sleep hours (i.e. during the daytime). If people are able to return to normal sleep patterns than symptoms will resolve themselves, however this is not an option for most people.
In one study, patients with shift-work sleep disorder were given either 200 mg of Modafinil or placebo before their shifts. Patients treated with Modafinil were seen to have a reduction in frequency and duration of attention lapses when tested on a vigilance test. A modest improvement in latency to sleep time was also seen.
However despite these improvements, patients continued to have some excessive sleepiness and impaired performance at night. Researchers have said that because of this residual sleepiness that still occurs that the development of even more effective treatments is necessary.
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a potentially serious disorder that occurs when the muscles supporting the tongue and soft palate in the mouth relax and cause the airway to be partially or completely blocked. Apnea refers to periods of total blockage and no breathing, while hypopnea refers to slow or shallow breathing that occurs with partial airway obstruction.
Symptoms of sleep apnea include loud snoring, observed periods of breathing cessation while sleeping, waking up choking, awakening with dry mouth and sore throat, morning headaches, and excessive daytime sleepiness.
Modafinil is therefore sometimes used as an adjunct therapy for treating the symptoms of sleep apnea. Its use is not to try and cure the disorder, but rather to improve the daytime sleepiness that often occurs due to the disrupted sleep patterns caused by breathing troubles at night. Multiple double-blind placebo-controlled research studies have shown that Modafinil significantly improves daytime sleepiness compared to placebo.
Attention Deficit disorder & Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
One of the most common off-label uses of Modafinil is for Attention Deficit disorder (ADD) and Attention-deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Many people use Modafinil for these conditions because of the stimulant effect it has. Many user reviews online state that using Modafinil for ADHD helps them stay motivated and focused on the task at hand.
Other review also mention that Modafinil use doesn’t have some of the more serious negative side effects (e.g. anxiety, depression) experienced with traditional medication such as Adderall, Ritalin, dextroamphetamine, and dexmethylphenidate.
Multiple research studies have tested using Modafinil to manage ADHD in adults. Some studies compared Modafinil to a placebo, while others compared both Modafinil and conventional medications to placebo.
One study tested the effectiveness of Modafinil compared to the conventional drug dextroamphetamine. Patients who took either of the active medications were seen to have significantly improved scores on the DSM-IV ADHD Checklist when compared to placebo. The researchers concluded that Modafinil pills are a viable alternative to conventional stimulants in adults with ADHD.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study found that a 200 mg dose of Modafinil was able to produce a similar pattern of cognitive enhancement in patients with ADHD compared to healthy patients. The researchers concluded that Modafinil has potential as an alternative treatment therapy for ADHD compared to traditional stimulants.
Use of Modafinil in children for ADHD is not recommended at this time. A study conducted using a specific high dose form of Modafinil called Sparlon in children with ADHD ended with some serious negative side effects in a small number of the participants.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare and serious disorder of the skin and mucous membranes. Its primary symptoms are fever, fatigue, widespread skin pain, a red or purple spreading rash, and blisters on the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes, and genitals.
Multiple studies since that time have shown the efficacy and safety of Modafinil use in children for ADHD, however it is not approved for use in this group. Additionally, Modafinil is currently not approved by the FDA as a drug to treat ADD or ADHD in adults, and more research is still needed to determine its full effects on these disorders.
Symptoms of Fatigue in Depression and Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
One of the most commonly reported symptoms associated with chronic depression is fatigue. Even in patients who are successfully being treated with conventional antidepressants like Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and having improvement in other symptoms associated with depression, fatigue and excessive sleepiness can still persist.
Additionally, some patients do not respond as well as wanted to conventional medications, and the combination of those antidepressants along with Modafinil has been seen work in some cases.
Multiple double-blind placebo-controlled studies have looked at the Modafinil augmentation in patients with fatigue and sleepiness who are only partially responding to traditional SSRI treatment for depression. In three separate but similar studies, Modafinil was used as an adjunct treatment with SSRI antidepressants in patients who were partial responders or nonresponders to the SSRIs alone.
In all three trials, Modafinil was seen to significantly improve fatigue and sleepiness in patients in the short term (less than 6 weeks). The researchers concluded that Modafinil may be a useful adjunct treatment for some patients with depression, especially those with fatigue issues.
As seen in patients with depression, one of the most common symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis is fatigue. Less research has been done on patients with this condition, however what has been done is promising.
One study was a single-blind, phase 2, two center study that compared Modafinil to placebo in improving fatigue severity in patients with MS. The patients were first given placebo for weeks 1-2, then 200 mg Modafinil pills for weeks 3-4, 400 mg Modafinil pills for weeks 5-6, and then placebo again for weeks 7-9.
The investigators were not blind to treatment to ensure safety of the participants. To ensure unbiased results, efficacy of treatment was evaluated using self rating scales, the primary test being the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).
It was found that fatigue and daytime sleepiness was significantly improved using the 200 mg dose of Modafinil, compared to both the 400 mg Modafinil dose and the placebo. The researchers said it was unclear why the higher 400 mg dosage did not maintain the improvements seen with the 200 mg dosage, concluding that it may have been due to tolerance or possible dose-related adverse effects that masked any possible benefits on fatigue.
Overall the researchers concluded that Modafinil may be a well tolerated and effective treatment for improving fatigue and sleepiness in people with MS.
Nootropic Cognitive Enhancement Effects
Some of the most common off-label uses of Modafinil are using the drug as a nootropic drug for cognitive enhancement. Various people from university students to Wall Street bankers to entrepreneurs use Modafinil to improve memory, learning, focus, and attention span.
One review study that examined the findings of previous research studies found that Modafinil specifically shows improvement in working and episodic memory following use.
Another review concluded that Modafinil primarily improves cognitive function in relation to executive function, especially when planning and executing difficult and complex tasks.
One double-blind between-subjects research study looked at the potential cognitive enhancing effects Modafinil had on healthy adult males.
It was found that Modafinil use significantly enhanced the participants performance on various neuropsychological tests including visual pattern recognition, spatial planning, and a stop-signal reaction test. Conversely, responding to certain tests was seen to be decreased, suggesting that Modafinil may help inhibit impulsivity and improve response accuracy.
Similarly to user reviews found in online nootropic forums, participants in the study reported feeling more alert and attentive on Modafinil, and having improved energy levels.
More research is needed in this area to full determine the effects Modafinil may have on healthy individuals to improve cognitive abilities.
5.Modafinil Side Effects and Dosages
Modafinil is considered to be safe with no dangerous side effects when used as directed. There are some mild Modafinil side effects which you may encounter during the course of normal use.
Through careful medical studies of the drug, researchers have determined the following list of potential adverse effects that can be caused by Modafinil:
Rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosa)
Lack of appetite
Rapid weight loss
Some of the more rare but serious potential side effects of Modafinil are various different skin rashes and reactions, including the previously mentioned Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN).
If you encounter any of these side effects while taking Modafinil pills, you should consult your doctor or pharmacist. If you would like to use this medical product, ask your doctor for a prescription or investigate whether you are eligible to buy Modafinil online in your country without a prescription.
When used for on-labels uses, Modafinil is typically prescribed at doses of 200 mg per day. Sometimes a lower dose of 100 mg per day is used to start, and then the dosage is increased to 200 mg gradually in individuals who may be sensitive to the full dose to start.
There are no commonly recommended dosages for Modafinil for off-labels uses. Most people will follow similar dosages to prescribed dosages, typically around 200 mg per day.
It is a good idea to read Modafinil reviews and user experiences before you take your first dosage so that you know exactly how this drug may affect you.
6.Adrafinil vs Modafinil vs Armodafinil
Adrafinil is a compound that is very similar to Modafinil in structure and usage. The two compounds are very similar in molecular structure; the only difference in composition is Modafinil is lacking an amide hydroxyl group that Adrafinil has.
Adrafinil acts as a prodrug of Modafinil. This means that it converts to Modafinil in the body, and then acts in a similar manner. Adrafinil was actually discovered two years prior to Modafinil in 1974 by the same pharmaceutical company that first discovered Modafinil.
Because it needs to be converted into Modafinil in the body, Adrafinil is not as potent as Modafinil. Not all of the Adrafinil in a dose of this drug will be converted into Modafinil, most is converted into the inactive modafinilic acid.
Modafinil is technically a 1:1 combination of two enantiomers, R-Modafinil and S-Modafinil. Enantiomers are mirror image versions of the same compound; therefore they have the same molecular components, just the structure is different.
On its own, the R enantiomer of Modafinil is known as Armodafinil. As a drug, Armodrafinil is used for the same purposes as Modafinil, namely improving wakefulness in people with sleep disorders and excessive sleepiness. The half-life of Armodafinil is longer than Modafinil, which can make it more effective in some cases.
The most popular name brand version of Armodafinil is Nuvigil, which is produced by the company Cephalon, which also produces the most popular brand name version of Modafinil – Provigil.
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